Alexander Fleming House was home to the Department of Health & Social Security until 1989. It then lay empty until its conversion into flats in 2002, and rebranded as Metro Central Heights.
It was designed by Hungarian architect Ernö Goldfinger and built in London’s Elephant & Castle between 1959 and 1967.
The decision to list it follows advice from English Heritage.
Heritage minister Ed Vaizey said: “Goldfinger considered this to be his most significant work. Acclaimed when it was first built, it subsequently divided opinion but has now – 25 years after first being put forward for listing – clearly passed the test of time. I am pleased now to be able to give it the recognition it deserves.”
English Heritage chief executive Simon Thurley said: “Built by distinguished architect Ernö Goldfinger, Metro Central Heights is an excellent example of high calibre post-war architecture. An accomplished building, it has proved highly influential for designs which followed. We are pleased that the heritage minister agrees with our advice and has listed it at Grade II.”