He will stick around with the builders' merchant group for six months to help smooth the transition to a successor, who is now being sought.
During his time in charge of the books, Travis Perkins turnover has grown from £400m a year to £5b through organic growth and acquisitions.
Chairman Robert Walker said: "Paul Hampden Smith has made a very significant contribution to Travis Perkins over many years and he goes with our very best wishes for the future. Paul has deservedly earned widespread respect, both inside and outside the Company, for his abilities and achievements."
Mr Hampden Smith remains a non-executive director of housebuilder Redrow.